The wisdom of Teams in Purchasing.

This story started one day when Mr Y… from Electron Inc. suddenly asked me ” Can you help me to transform my  purchasing team in a aggressive, redoubtable  weapon against  internal and external cost.; our future just rely on the success of this transformation!”

And so started the story….

Anachronistic archaism

The situation I found was like this:

Electron Inc is a global company specialized in electronic products for various kinds of Industries. Quality  and reliability of Electron inc products are in many cases perceived as order winners by customers, but cost has become for a specific range of its product an order looser , as competition puts more and more pressure on price.

Major reasons for  this situation have been clearly identified:

First, the cost structure of the products. Material  represents 75-80% of the total  Cost of Goods Sold, but improvement efforts during the last few years were concentrated on labour productivity and lead-times reductions.

Second ,the  absence of consistent Purchasing  and Supply Chain strategy since years, if we except a few isolated initiatives. Number of active Suppliers , for example, remains extremely high although it has been reduced from more than 850  in the early nineties to 600 in 1997 and 300 in 98, for a purchased value of 48 millions FF in average. Among those suppliers 35 , representing  80% of the total purchased value are certified from a quality perspective, which has helped to stop incoming inspection for the items they deliver. 25 of them , have signed a “logistic contract” with Electron inc in order to implement “call-off” or Kanban Systems and reduce inventory. None of these efforts have ever lead to a real partnership agreement with any key supplier.

Third, organization of the purchasing department. Although it has recently been renamed as “Strategic Cost Reduction team”, people’s skills , ways of working are dramatically old fashioned. Among the team members, mainly one has acquired by experience a  good technical knowledge on the products and the electronic parts to buy, plus significant negotiation skills. Two others mostly buy on catalogs ,with limited discussions with vendors. In addition to this weaknesses , buyers  are frequently involved in multitudes of tasks that historically were abandoned by other departments (follow-up of software licenses,…) and that have now created a serious bottleneck  in the group.  he purchasing manager, freshly arrived from another sector of the industry,  has in one year demonstrated his inability to overcome all this obstacles .

A quick situation analysis had showed that only a breakthrough approach could be used to get out of the rut.

The first decision we took was to isolate the low value added purchasing activities ( buying on catalogue) and place them in another less critical part of the organization ,awaiting for a possible external subcontracting of this tasks.

The second  was to move away from a centralized- hierarchical- functional Supply Management organization that relies on the expertise and performance of individuals, to a process oriented organization that depends on a TEAM and is aligned on  common vision .This idea came from the statement we made when we were considering the different  skills that the remaining purchasing people should have: Negotiation- Technical- Quality- MRP2 & JIT.

Potential solutions were poor.

Solution1: to perfuse all this competencies in the existing team members, which rapidly appears as an impossible challenge and an utopia seeing the short timing we had to achieve it.


Solution 2 :  to get rid of the existing team and recruit a couple of new buyers with the missing skills,  which is another utopia because of the cost of such high caliber persons, regarding the total purchased value at Electron Inc.

Solution 3: to kill one hierarchical level, and create within a process and performance driven team, a bank of competencies bringing together all the indispensable skills.

That’s finally the option we choose; the former purchasing manager was offered a position of PROCUREMENT ENGINEER (2). We then incorporated a technical person with good purchasing background and gave him the role of ADVANCED PROCUREMENT ENGINEER (1). We also took a QUALITY ENGINEER (4) coming from one of the Production Processes to bring upon request his expertise in supplier Certification. The buyers “on catalogues” were re-named LOGISTIC BUYERS (3) and placed in the production processes, one of their representatives having one permanent place in the new team.

The new “Strategic Supply management team” was placed under the direct leadership of the Supply Chain Director.
Roles and Responsibilities



  • implement “Design to Cost”.
  • is an active participant in the design of new products.
  • has a perfect understanding of market and technology evolution.
  • has a good technical background


  • build the detailed product specification with R&D teams.
  • Select new suppliers, negotiate cost-quality-delivery and final partnership agreement.
  • Define the general purchasing strategies with other team members
  • has a good technical and Logistic (MRP2, JIT,…)experience.



  • implement logistic part of the Partnership agreement.
  • is in charge of the day to day procurement process.
  • establish forecast for suppliers


  • lead the supplier certification process.


From the beginning we thought that the success of this change was relying on both people and the implementation process; That’s the reason why we first spend a couple of days outside the company ,in team building exercises starting with the  “soft ” parts, like ground rules definition for team meetings, acceptable behaviors between members, etc… The “hard” stuff started when we came to talk about the vision and concrete target to reach in a very near future.

The challenge we gave  them was not only to focus on cost reduction, but to view supply management as a cross organizational process that transforms the contributions of suppliers into the satisfaction of customer requirements.

In the past, the End user perspective  in the purchasing process has never been considered as such . Deming’s view of every business as a whole system that transforms inputs into outputs gave us the final inspiration of our vision.

The  ultimate performance goal was to give both internal and external customers, the material delivery they need, when they need it , and at the lowest possible cost. We asked them to measure themselves against 6 criteria:

  1. Delivery performance to  Customers,
  2. cycle time,
  3. late deliveries,
  4. number of suppliers,
  5. % of material cost savings compared to annual plan.
  6. reject rate.

When members of the group got back together after the initial phase, they proposed by themselves specific performance goals for each objective; for example, reducing the percentage of defective components from 2% to 1% before year end, or to limit to 1% the tolerance in suppliers delivery date accuracy.

Although we invested time and money in coaching exercises with external consultant plus regular team meetings to build camaraderie trough lunches, cocktail hours …, the Strategic Supply Team was still not  a real team. It had clear performance goals and began to develop common aspirations ,but there was still a gap between talk about empowerment and being really empowered. In fact, some members were still feeling each others out to discover how serious everyone was about achieving their joint goals

We finally reached the total engagement of all team members when we agreed on a peer appraisal system ( we’ll come back to this point in a next newsletter) that gave everyone the opportunity to evaluate everybody else in the group and feed it back to the person being evaluated.

After 6 months, the team spirit finally worked so well that people began to teach each others the basics of their own core competence, and the cross-fertilization process  started to grow rapidly .

So far it is too early to conclude whether or not our experience with Electron Inc. is successful, but at this stage of the experience we are now negotiating 2 partnership agreements with high Quality, Cost and Logistic standards in order to meet the requirements of a new group of customers that recently came to us place an order for more than 25 millions £ in the next 2 years. This contract would never have happened without this new strategy.

…If you want to know more about this story, please ask me, but let me first l tell you  ” You are not going to achieve it in one day or in 10, neither in 100, you may even never achieve it, but please let’s try it you’ll never regret it. (JFK 1960,July 4Th)

Emmanuel de Ryckel

Thanks to John R. Katzenbach and Dougnas K. Smith for the book “The wisdom of Teams” they wrote in 84. and that was for me a great source of inspirations for the solution we found at Electron Inc.

Thanks to Gilbert Parent from “Technostyl” in Belgium for the clarification of the different in the new team he gave me when i met him in november 98

Unither adquire laboratório paulista com foco em medicamentos de dose única

A Unither Pharmaceuticals, empresa de origem francesa referência em terceirização farmacêutica na área dos líquidos e líder global em tecnologias de dose única, anuncia a aquisição da Mariol Industrial, localizada em Barretos (SP), cuja atividade se concentra no desenvolvimento e terceirização para a indústria farmacêutica, e que conta atualmente com 156 colaboradores.

Com a operação, a Unither Pharmaceuticals fortalece suas aspirações no Brasil, ofertando soluções personalizadas na área dos líquidos (P&D, terceirização de produção e registro de produtos) para a indústria farmacêutica nacional. O investimento será estratégico também para ampliar o mercado para os produtos e tecnologias da companhia para toda a América do Sul.

Em virtude de sua expertise, a Unither Pharmaceuticals oferece aos clientes diferentes possibilidades de cooperação, desde a Terceirização Estratégica, em que a empresa atua como um parceiro para terceirizar todas as fases de produção, da fabricação à embalagem, passando pelo desenvolvimento e fabricação de novas embalagens e apresentações para medicamentos existentes, até o desenvolvimento de produtos inovadores, prontos para serem rotulados e comercializados com a marca do cliente.UNITHER

“Em 2016, o Brasil deverá tornar-se o sexto maior mercado farmacêutico do mundo e a Unither Pharmaceuticals quer reforçar com esta aquisição a crença no potencial do mercado brasileiro”, afirma o Diretor-executivo Frédéric Larre, responsável pelo desenvolvimento de novos negócios da companhia na América do Sul. Segundo o executivo, com a aquisição, a empresa deseja manter os empregos, ampliar a linha de produtos, investir em novas tecnologias, como BFS e sachês stick-pack, além de ampliar o mercado a toda a América Latina.

Segundo Larre, a Unither prevê em 2016 investir R$ 10 milhões em linhas de produção e equipamentos na nova unidade.

“Soluções personalizadas em serviços e terceirização são cada vez mais procuradas pela indústria farmacêutica brasileira e internacional que quer atuar no Brasil e a crise reforçou isso. Em vez de construir novas plantas, os laboratórios estão procurando alternativas para fabricar medicamentos. A terceirização é um caminho, aliando custo, qualidade e eficiência”, conclui o executivo.

“Consideramos a aquisição da Mariol Industrial pela Unither Pharmaceuticals uma operação benéfica tanto para os funcionários da empresa quanto para a própria cidade de Barretos, em virtude da expertise da companhia e do investimento previsto em novas tecnologias. Além disso, acreditamos na sinergia que existirá entre a Unither Pharmaceuticals e a Rio Química, outra empresa do grupo, líder em produtos voltados ao combate à infecção hospitalar”, afirma o atual presidente da Rio Química e ex-presidente da Mariol Industrial, José Antonio de Oliveira.MARIOL

Pharmacie : Unither reprend une usine de doses unitaires stériles au Brésil

Unither accélère le pas au Brésil. Après avoir implanté, en 2011, un bureau commercial à São Paulo, le leader mondial des doses unitaires stériles vient d’acquérir l’entreprise Mariol Industrial, l’un des rares façonniers pharmaceutiques brésiliens. Créée en 2008, cette société familiale emploie quelque 150 personnes dans son usine de Barretos, dans l’Etat de São Paulo. « Nos clients désirent une production locale pour leurs produits commercialisés au Brésil », commente Eric Goupil, PDG du Groupe Unither.

Le seul marché pharmaceutique brésilien doit passer, selon les études de l’IMS, de la 7e à la 5e place mondiale d’ici à 2020. « Il pèsera alors plus lourd que l’actuel marché français », poursuit Eric Goupil. Le groupe se dit déjà prêt à investir pour suivre cette évolution. L’usine de Barretos, qui produit essentiellement des formes liquides (suspensions, sirops…), est équipée de deux lignes pilotes pour la production de sticks packs, des sachets-doses souples permettant le conditionnement de produits liquides. « Il s’agit là de l’une de nos principales technologies clefs. Nous ajouterons rapidement des lignes à haute cadence à ces lignes pilotes », complète le dirigeant. Unither ambitionne également de servir à partir du Brésil, mais aussi de ses cinq usines françaises, les pays du Mercosur, l’immense marché commun sud- américain fort de 270 millions d’habitants.


Maintaining momentum in Brazil’s pharmaceutical market

mackinsey pharma

Despite macroeconomic deceleration, we expect Brazil’s pharma market to grow 7–10 percent per year until 2020. Double-digit growth is possible, but will require a granular approach.

The first three quarters of 2014 are in the books and it is clear that pharma’s high-growth velocity in emerging markets has slowed considerably, especially in Brazil. During the last decade the Brazilian pharma market sported double-digit growth rates (Exhibit 1), attracting investments and raising hopes for the future. The next seven years until 2020 will still deliver attractive growth for the overall market, but at a more sustainable rate of 7 to 10 percent annually, rather than the 15 percent year-over-year expansion enjoyed


Is above-market growth achievable? We believe it is, because many of the demographic and industry trends that supported significant growth during the last decade still have significant force.

Meta-trends supporting continued growth include an ageing population with more chronic diseases, ascension of the middle class, expanded healthcare coverage and the rise of healthcare as a national priority, with demonstrable growth outside the São Paulo-Rio de Janeiro axis. There is also substantial dynamism in the healthcare industry itself, as reflected in the ongoing global consolidation of pharmaceutical players, new vertical organizations that bring together payors and providers to evolve coverage strategies, growth from biologics (with contributions from the biosimilars sector) and the rise of productive development partnerships (PDPs). Given these forces, growth is not only possible but probable.

However, despite these promising demographic and industry trends, their impact is tempered by several hurdles, including:

  • Higher drug development costs coupled with greater pressure to keep prices low
  • High taxes and excessive protectionism that limit investment, and regulations that compromise agility and innovation
  • Poor infrastructure and limited access to healthcare outside the Southeast region, which shrinks the addressable market
  • A shortage of talent and skilled professionals exacerbated by a lack of coordination between different spheres and systems
  • A turbulent economic and political environment throughout 2014, with fragmented attention to national needs in the run up to the World Cup and Olympic Games

Given these realities, near-term growth in pharmaceuticals will have to be earned, not taken for granted. To sustain growth, companies will need to take these realities into account, use a more conscientious, granular approach to serving customers and micro-markets, and be ready to shift their focus to high opportunity areas. How and where to find these pockets of growth? In this article we discuss factors influencing the three main segments of the pharma market—retail, public institutional and private institutional—and outline possible steps and options to maintain the growth trajectory.

Retail market: Evolving demand for more, and cheaper, drugs

Our prognosis for the next seven years (2013–2020) is for the retail market to grow significantly, at 8 to 10 percent per year, making it the strongest segment in the pharmaceuticals industry. That said, the projected growth is well off the 14.3 CAGR posted from 2005 to 2013 (Exhibit 2). Unfortunately, the macroeconomic headwinds battering Brazil are a primary cause of the slower growth, with GDP growth in 2014 almost flat, falling to -1.0 percent in 2015. The continuing deterioration of sentiment in the international community regarding Brazil’s performance makes investment uncertain, while the poor economic outlook is translating into stagnated growth of the middle class and a related shrinking of disposable income for these consumers. However, other trends are expected to boost out-of-pocket spending, although growth will mainly be seen in volumes, not margins. The expansion of the elderly population will increase consumption of healthcare products and services related to age-related conditions. Furthermore, improved access across other population segments is also likely, given government efforts to license more physicians and support for pharmaceutical assistance programs such as Farmácia Popular.


Finally, fiercer competition among local players with scale will mean aggressive discounts, not to mention increasing penetration of generics, both of which are expected to drive additional volume growth.

How to capture granular growth in the retail market

Capturing growth within this environment will require pharmacos to develop new models to reach consumers and new strategies to grow their share of wallet. Established local players can more easily surf the wave of growth with serial product launches and by taking advantage of government incentives to scale more efficiently. Multinationals are challenged to compete with the agility of local firms. Accordingly, our perspective is that gaining a competitive advantage hinges on both developing a cost-conscious model to serve consumers and being able to reach new, more localized pockets of growth.

Fortunately, gaining insight into where growth lies outside the major cities is becoming easier. Drawing from McKinsey’s proprietary tool, CityNav (Exhibit 3), we predict that midsized cities (20,000 to 500,000 people) will be responsible for more than 50 percent of total consumption growth in Brazil. As we move towards mid-smaller cities (20,000 to 100,000 people), the pace actually picks up due to stronger participation from consumers in the middle classes. A proprietary McKinsey study, Healthscope, revealed that 50 percent of the middle class is actually willing to spend more on healthcare. Consequently, identifying the segments and cities that hold the most promise can significantly increase a pharmaco’s performance.


In addition, generics penetration is expected to rise in small to midsized cities. Current penetration is still highly uneven, with a greater concentration in the Southeast region, although greater access is being driven by more doctors joining the ranks of public physicians. In short, all roads in the retail market lead to new geographies, and pharmacos will need to navigate them in order to capture a slice of the expanding pie.

Finally, serving midsized cities spread across Brazil will require pharmacos to create new detailing capabilities to maintain profitability levels. Only a few local players are currently experimenting with digital outreach, for example. Yet to capture the full potential inherent in midsized cities, companies will need to invest in this capability to make consumer engagement more appealing, efficient and continuous. This could include developing “beyond the pill” solutions that span the patient’s journey, such as disease management programs and adherence and monitoring devices, both of which can help pharmacos increase sales in this new environment.

Public institutional market: A pullback after years of growth

The most dramatic changes will be seen and felt in the public institutional segment in the years to come. We expect this segment to grow 6 to 8 percent per annum, quite a reversal from its position as the highest growth segment over the last decade, with pharmaceutical firms enjoying 16.6 percent annual growth from 2005–2013. This expansion followed the initial formalization of a government pharmaceutical assistance policy, which included redesigning formularies to increase the therapies covered, and the creation of a new Health Technology Assessment (HTA) process to better support the goals of universal access to healthcare. Both of these developments attracted investments by and to the pharmaceutical sector.

After this burst of activity, the government is now attempting to impose spending controls. These have taken three forms, primarily: centralization of purchases in the federal sphere, strongly increasing pricing pressure; regulatory interventions such as ANVISA denials to approve some high cost products; and development of the local industry through PDP agreements. Given these new developments, it is a near certainty that the growth of drug purchases by the public institutional sector will not maintain the same pattern (Exhibit 4).


Moreover, Brazil’s tenuous macroeconomic outlook will impact resources that could be earmarked by the government for therapies. Healthcare expenditures are tied to GDP growth at the federal level, and with slowing economic growth, spending over the next few years will not match historical rates. Specifically, we expect total government expenditures on health to stabilize around ~4.5 percent of GDP by 2020 (slightly up from the current level of 4.3 percent), with the private market contributing the other half of health expenses by 2020 (~4.7 percent of GDP).

Despite the reduction in spending, demand and expectations for therapies continue unabated. Pharmaceutical assistance programs have now assumed a protected place in the political dialogue, even as the government struggles to find ways of shrinking formularies and reducing costs while shouldering considerable popular and legal pressure to improve formulary coverage.

Accordingly, we expect formulary inclusions to increase, at least in the short term, with pressure from the government on pharmacos coming in the form of price negotiations as it supports more biosimilars and generics.

How to capture granular growth—public institutional

Despite cost control efforts and the overall economic slowdown, significant reductions in expenditures have yet to materialize. Nevertheless, pharmacos will need to prepare for such an eventuality. Similar to the retail market, we expect players will need to target their commercial efforts more precisely, looking for distinct sub-segments of populations and markets in order to achieve above-market growth rates in the public institutional segment.

Federal formulary inclusion remains the aspiration, although, while still possible, it is not guaranteed. Furthermore, federal formulary inclusion requires robust commercial capabilities and regulatory savvy, and CONITEC requires more value-based evidence than ever. With the PDP window closing, companies will need to look beyond the federal formulary program for growth paths. This means they will need to gain insight and access to formularies controlled by State Secretariats, and invest to overcome any access barriers that exist at this level in terms of diagnostics and treatment access.

Getting the most traction in the public institutional segment also means understanding access disparities across therapeutic areas. In oncology, for example, drugs are chosen on a case-by-case basis by physicians and public hospitals in a highly decentralized system. Although SUS reimbursement values are relatively low, there are no formulary restrictions and few federal treatment guidelines. Hence increasing sales in this therapeutic area requires that pharmacos have the capability, market coverage and resources to work with these institutions and physicians directly. Having such capabilities will reduce access barriers to guaranteed prescriptions, rather than allocating resources to negotiate with relevant secretariats or the federal government.

Private institutional market: Slower growth, with pockets of opportunities

Growth in the private institutional market will occupy the middle ground between retail and public institutional, although closer to the retail rate. We project 7 to 9 percent growth of the private institutional pharmaceutical market between 2013–2020, compared to the stronger pace of ~15.0 percent over the previous decade (Exhibit 5). An extended economic slowdown that reduces formal job creation will be one of the main determinants of private insurance penetration, with a slack job market translating into slower coverage growth.

Exhibit 5

Institutional private pharma market: Historical and projected growth.


Moreover, because the expenses of private plans grew at an unsustainable level of 15 percent per year over the last eight years, it appears that health insurers will need to adopt cost containment strategies regardless of the slowdown. Most corporate plans renegotiate contracts every year; as such, allowing costs to maintain their upward spiral means that employers will be challenged to contract for the same level of private insurance services, putting payors at a disadvantage. For this reason, the private institutional drug market is expected to face some pressure on the back of insurers’ increasing cost containment measures, not to mention growing verticalization within the sector.

Nevertheless, even with better cost control measures in place, expenses are expected to continue to climb at ~8 percent per year between now and 2020, considering the needs of a rapidly ageing population, lack of beds in the private system and new mandatory technologies (in drugs and services). Growth should not focus on more drugs, however. Despite regulatory attempts to include outpatient drugs in mandatory formularies, the ANS has moved gradually to expand formularies and few expect drastic changes in this approach, even with eventual inclusions in the future.

How to capture granular growth—private institutional

Historically, the private market has received less attention from pharmacos due to its smaller size and the regulatory challenges facing outpatient drug reimbursement.

However, the current wave of verticalization in the sector and shift in prescribing power from physicians to insurers make it essential for pharmacos to invest more resources into managing the private market.

Making the most of opportunities to serve this market will require companies to recognize that the provider and payor markets in Brazil are still highly fragmented, despite some recent consolidation/verticalization. Hence companies must commit to developing a deep understanding of individual customers (hospitals, clinics, insurers)—much as consumer goods companies do when courting grocery chains or other retail outlets—in order to respond to their specific needs.

Each group of hospitals and clinics has different demands, and doing the legwork to identify which types of services and products to offer will be an important differentiating factor for pharmacos. In addition, these institutions are fairly complex, requiring companies to have individualized accounts and stakeholder strategies for each organization.

Developing a holistic account approach to ensure that critical stakeholders perceive and receive real value should be considered. Pharmacos can develop a clearer understanding of needs and behaviors within a hospital, for example, by focusing on key influencers in departments such nursing, clinical ops and pharmacy management. This approach allows them to shape differentiated offers and service levels that align with key buying factors and position the pharmaco to capture whatever growth is available.

Serving insurers will require the same kind of segmentation, as well as in-depth knowledge of that sector. We have found that despite sharing more similarities than providers, there are clear differences in the purchasing profiles of insurers, depending on the type of operator and client.

The healthcare landscape is shifting in Brazil, buffeted by macroeconomic trends, changes in demographics and expectations, political agendas and the complexities of doing business in a market where universal access is still evolving.

Nevertheless, there are pockets of opportunity in all three major segments of the market. The retail, public and private institutional pies will be divvied up among pharmacos that understand both the changes and new customer-centric capabilities required to maintain momentum in a slowing market.

About the Authors

Paula Afonso is a knowledge specialist in McKinsey’s São Paulo office, where Tracy Francis is a director and Paula Ramos is a principal, and Julio Dreszer is a principal in the Miami office.

“Kill The Skills”

I wrote this message more than 15 years ago when I was working for a major Multinational Company in the Electronic Business.This company was facing a major restructuring after a merger and as Operation Director at that time I was fighting to protect people from the desaster of a severe restructuring.
Today in 2009 all this seems to be so far, but as Transition Manager I am now working to help Companies to face this difficults period and help them to be prepared for when the better days will come.

“Kill The Skills”
Alliances, acquisitions, mergers often look like real battlefields where employees are expressing openly or secretly their new stress, distraction and confusion.
Although top managers appears on TV or in Magazines with “AquaFresh” smiles, presenting how they were so clever to imagine the new “partnership” with brand new strategies leading to maximum growth and top profitability for happy shareholders, situation inside the new corporation rarely looks so easy.
As stock exchange value goes up ,delighted by this new generation of head-cutters, situation in the field often looks more like the Bronx in New York.
Through the last 6 years, the total value of mergers in the world was multiplied by six, reaching 2300 billion dollars in 98 (“Au secours, mon Entreprise fusionne!”-“L’Express”-August 26Th, 1999).
Following a recent A.T Kearney study made on a hundred companies that recently faced a merger between 1993 and 1996, 58% of them have partially or totally killed the existing values (human and organizational assets) of one of the 2 companies, without any capitalisation.
Two third of them have openly admitted to have missed their strategic objectives.
Frequently, the expected savings that have justified dramatic rationalization decisions never happened or were achieved on the surface after massive restructuring based on simple considerations like headcount or facilities numbers, creating chaos in the organisation, generating later on considerable indirect costs . General root causes for significant secondary cost increase after restructuring can be:
kill skills• -Best elements are leaving rapidly, creating confusion between survivals.
• -Within management, best “Politicians”, after intense lobbying , carefully keep for themselves and friends key positions, leaving the others in an unbearable waiting mood.
• -Reorganization remains at “reconstruction” stage at inferior levels, creating a durable mess still alive 2 or 3 years later .
• -Senior people ,sacked for the privilege of being “amortised “, disappear with experiences and know-how, leaving behind them an empty shell.
• -Absence of care to create a new culture in the “just born” corporation, helping to keep the existence of hostile clans.
• – Desynchronisation of existing synergies between R&D, Manufacturing , Marketing…
• -People, at shopfloor level wandering about the rumours, progressively looses their productivity.

So what? Losing your job after a merger or an acquisition, is it good or bad news?
Fighting to keep your position within your current company, with unclear borders in your role, with degraded atmosphere, is not necessarily the best option.
Think twice before taking any decision!
But if you want to try to survive in the new environnement, and continue to surf in this new climate, you can probably find your inspiration in “The new science of Disorder” by Ian Stewart , in which you will learn faster than anywhere else how to face the wonderful random and uncertainty of chaos……or you can work with us, as they are so many other ways than disorder to keep those skills alive after the storm.
Emmanuel de Ryckel

From Promise to Performance: A Journey of Transformation at Smithkline Beecham

.A história de uma experiência profissional que mudou a minha vida (EdR)

by Robert Patten Bauman (Author), Peter Jackson (Author), Joanne T. Lawrence (Author)

from promiseHere are lessons from the personal experience of the team that led one of the most successful transnational corporate mergers of all time-the transformation of SmithKline Beckman and the Beecham Group into SmithKline Beecham, a leading international health care company. The authors recount their thinking and actions as well as the successes, failures, and lessons learned. Through the story of the merger, they present a framework of five requisites for creating a culture of change: instilling a winning attitude, making the organization the hero, striving for continuous learning, instituting strategic communication, and aligning behavior with strategy. For managers, this account offers a rare, behind-the-scenes glimpse into how a major company aligned its business actions and behavior to be competitive in a rapidly changing industry, and how others can create an environment in which the ability to change sustains success. “An absorbing, fly-on-the-wall account of a major merger…. For business executives and managers who want to know the inner workings of a well-executed and ultimately effective corporate merger, From Promise to Performance is a must-read.”–National Productivity Review “This is a fascinating, inside account of an extraordinarily successful merger. Even more important, it is a book about institutionalizing change. The merger is seen not as an end, but as a beginning. Change and learning are viewed as ongoing processes and values that sustain improved performance. I recommend it highly. It’s both informative and entertaining.” –Paul A. Allaire, Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Xerox Corporation

Evaluation de ma personnalité réalisée par la société AFISOM/CEPFI

Evaluation de ma personnalité réalisée par la société AFISOM/CEPFI, et m’ayant permis en 1997  de décrocher le poste de Directeur des Operations chez Honeywell Measurement & Control Europe à Amiens (France)

Monsieur de RYCKEL présente une forte ambition, un tempérament déterminé énergique. On remarque d’emblée l’équilibre, le caractère harmonieux et l’assurance qui le caractérisent qui sont de nature à favoriser une adaptation rapide à tous types d’environnement.

Ses buts sont clairs, bien enracinés, c’est quelqu’un qui poursuit avec régularité ses objectifs sans se laisser influencer. Il est capable de définir dans l’instant la ligne de conduite à adopter, a une vision prospective sur les choses et ne s’arrête s au court-terme. C’est un homme de projets, capable d’initiative, entreprenant créatif qui privilégie une vue d’ensemble des problèmes à traiter et paraît peu enclin à s’attarder sur les détails des situations, il investit sur le long terme et va de l’avant.

JLG_9510 01vv

S’il prend en compte les données de l’existant, il sait prendre la distance nécessaire par rapport au quotidien pour se projeter dans l’avenir, laissant à d’autres le soin de traduire de manière opérationnelle et détaillée les étapes nécessaires à l’atteinte d’un objectif global. Cest plus un homme de décision et de stratégie qu’un organisateur rigoureux.

Les facultés d’adaptation reposent sur une sensibilité aigüe aux ambiances et-contextes rencontrés. Le pouvoir de conviction sur la cohérence du raisonnement, la transparence et Intégrité du comportement, ainsi que sur la forte implication dans ses projets. Le potentiel de leadership s’enrichit donc de ces qualités.

Au plan du management d’équipe, il semble avoir également une vision claire de son rôle, des résultats à obtenir. Homme de pouvoir et d’influence, il a l’esprit de compétition, apprécie d’être en position de leader d’un groupe mais n’en perd pas pour autant le sens du travail collectif et de l’équipe. Il agit avec souplesse, flexibilité, ce qui le rend apte à créer une ambiance de travail motivante et faire naître l’enthousiasme dans son Entourage.

Son abord sympathique, son ouverture, sa loyauté l’aident à faire passer ses messages et à fixer des objectifs à l’équipe. S’il privilégie la concertation, il sait également se montrer persuasif. Large d’esprit, positif dans sa conception du management, il peut lui arriver de se montrer trop optimiste quant au potentiel des gens, voire manifester une Tolérance excessive à l’égard des erreurs de ses collaborateurs. Il semble en effet attacher beaucoup plus d’importance aux qualités “humaines” qu’aux compétences professionnelles des autres dans ses appréciations.

Son implication dans sa mission est tributaire de la capacité de l’environnement à répondre à ses besoins de contacts et de collaboration, de missions stimulantes et d’opportunités d’évolution.


Une personnalité riche et originale chez un candidat qui possède le sens de I’engagement et manifeste de la continuité et de la persévérance au plan personnel.
C’est un esprit positif, qui ne se laisse pas décourager, reconnu au plan professionnel pour la force de ses convictions, sa capacité à lancer des projets, déterminer des objectifs, on appréciera tout autant au plan humain chez ce candidat, la loyauté, l’implication ainsi que de réelles capacités d’adaptation.


Six Magma


En 1997, alors que le président de Général Electric, J Welsh, annonça les meilleurs résultats de son groupe depuis la création de GE 105 ans plus tôt, la surprise fut énorme sur les marchés. La surprise pourtant ne vint pas des chiffres annoncés, mais de leur attribution à la démarche Qualité dénommée «Six Sigma » lancée dans le groupe quelques années auparavant.

Depuis ce jour historique, les programmes 6 Sigma ont «poussés » ça et là dans bon nombre d’entreprise dans le monde prenant ainsi prétendument le relais des démarches de Qualité Totale tellement louées durant les décades précédentes et soudain tellement désuètes.

Une morale dans cette histoire : une méthode parfois porteuse de fruits mirobolants, le plus souvent pourtant génératrice de bénéfices localisés et superficiels. Une raison, avoir confondu et placé en compétition Six Sigma & TQM, alors que le second nommé est bien le préalable au premier.
Le terme sigma, par ailleurs dix-huitième lettre de l’alphabet grec, mesure la capacité d’un processus à fonctionner sans défaut. Parler de 6 Sigma pour un processus revient à dire que celui-ci produira pour son client un résultat (produit ou service) présentant une potentialité de défaut de 3,4 par million, ou autrement dit un taux de perfection de 99,99966%. Il est intéressant de noter que la moyenne des entreprises productrices de biens ou de services se situe à 4 sigma, ce qui représente une potentialité de défaut de 6,21 par millier.Image7

A titre de comparaison, une telle « performance » appliquée à des domaines médicaux tels le nombre d’opérations chirurgicales ou le nombre de prescriptions de médicaments, représenterait 5000 erreurs médicales en hôpitaux chaque jour, ou 200000 erreurs de prescription chaque année.

« Six Sigma » est donc une mesure, pas une méthode. Le plus grand mérite de la mesure du « sigma » déployée dans un environnement déjà bien imprégné des fondements de la Qualité Totale est de formaliser l’utilisation d’outils statistiques, de fournir des unités de mesures et un langage commun à toute l’entreprise, d’intensifier les efforts de réduction de variation des processus de toute nature, de rendre visible les résultats vis à vis des clients.

Pourtant, non ce n’est pas demain que les statisticiens de tous poils envahiront nos organisations, car il y a tant d’autres choses à faire bien avant, choses dont nous parle parfaitement l’auteur du livre : « Objectif Six Sigma » (Editions Village mondial qui vient justement d’être traduit en français, et dont nous reproduisons ici des extraits portant sur la stratégie à déployer pour atteindre ce but.


Il est rare que les « professionnels » Qualité présentent aussi l’amélioration qualité comme un moyen des résultats généraux de l’entreprise. Pourtant, si ce lien n’est pas établi, la direction générale finit par ne voir la qualité qu’un supplément, un petit quelque chose en plus. Pis, si les premiers efforts n’aboutissent pas à des réussites visibles, elle en vient à considérer ses investissements en formation et en travail sur le projet comme une dépense inutile.

Image9On pourra trouver dans les principales étapes de la mise en place d’une stratégie de qualité «six Sigma » développées ici de quoi déclencher l’implication de la direction générale.

1.Définir d’un commun accord des objectifs stratégiques.

La première étape cruciale pour la réussite d’une opération de qualité consiste à définir d’un commun accord des objectifs stratégiques. (…) Au Westin Tabor Center, dont les perspectives étaient fixées par le contrat régissant les relations entre son propriétaire gérant la chaîne hôtelière, ces objectifs étaient : le Gopar, ou gross operating profit per available room (autrement dit « le résultat d’exploitation brut par chambre disponible.

Cet objectif de base porte Sur Les revenus. Il ne faut pas le confondre avec le taux d’occupation. (…) Leur but n’est pas de remplir leurs chambres mais de les remplir au tarif le plus élevé possible :

  • le maintien d’une notation AAA 4 étoiles. L’American Automobile Association (AAA) visite les hôtels incognito et les note par rapport à une série de critères pour vérifier qu’ils respectent toujours les conditions d’attribution des quatre étoiles.
  • – la satisfaction du personnel. Westin effectue des enquêtes sur la satisfaction du personnel et surveille de près son taux de rotation. La satisfaction des clients tend à être d’autant plus grande que la satisfaction du personnel l’est aussi : c’est vrai dans tous les secteurs, mais plus encore dans l’hôtellerie.

2.  Créer des processus.

Traditionnellement, les entreprises sont organisées par fonctions, dans un but d’efficience et d’efficacité. Cela vient d’une idée fausse. La plupart des entreprises qui adoptent une perspective fonctionnelle ne sont ni aussi efficaces ni aussi efficientes qu’elles se l’imaginent.

Une entreprise qui pense et agit sur un mode fonctionnel a une vision verticale de son travail. Cette démarche se traduit souvent par des raisonnements et des actes visant à maximiser les objectifs et sous-objectifs de chaque fonction. Or ceux-ci peuvent entrer en conflit avec les buts d’ensemble de l’entreprise. Par exemple, le service des voyages d’une entreprise aura pour objectif de limiter les coûts. Il choisira donc la compagnie aérienne la moins chère, et qu’importe si les salariés ne bénéficient plus de vols directs. Mais si les voyages leur demandent plus de temps, les salariés seront moins productifs. De même, une fonction des ventes et du marketing qui atteindrait ses quotas dès le mois de mai poserait des problèmes de capacité au service de Ici fabrication et lui occasionnerait des coûts de main-d’œuvre supplémentaires. (…)

Maximiser une fonction aux dépens des objectifs de l’entreprise dans son ensemble (on parle alors de sous-optimisation)n’est que l’un des problèmes qui se posent. Plus généralement, le problème du raisonnement fonctionnel réside dans son effet sur les clients de l’entreprise.

L’objectif majeur d’augmentation de l’efficience suppose un recentrage d’ensemble sur les clients, les processus et les salariés.

Si vous vous représentez votre entreprise en termes géométriques, comment le client circule-t-il en son sein ? Certainement pas verticalement. Il emprunte une série de processus qui se présentent plutôt de façon horizontale. (…)

Un processus est une série d’étapes et d’actions alimentées par des entrées ou inputs et qui leur ajoute de la valeur en créant des sorties ou outputs. Songeons || par exemple a la manière dont un client «circule » dans une entreprise d’équipements électroniques. Peut-être verra-t-il d’abord dans la presse une publicité émanant de la direction du marketing. Il se rendra ensuite dans un point de vente ou il rencontrera un commercial. Puis, en cas de problème après son achat, il devra peut-être faire appel a |’assistance technique. Son cheminement dans l’entreprise est donc horizontal et non vertical.

L’entreprise doit donc déterminer les processus généraux et les sous-processus principaux qui la composent. Un processus général (core process) est une série d’étapes ou d’actions trans-fonctionnelles ayant une incidence profonde sur la réalisation des objectifs stratégiques, que ce soit directement ou indirectement. Un processus général représente la somme de sous-processus principaux (key sub-processes). (…)


Avant de passer à l’étape suivante de la gestion de processus, il reste une dernière chose à faire : détecter les processus qui n’appartiennent pas nécessairement à l’un ou l’autre de ceux généraux. On les appelle des processus de réalisation (enabling processes) ; ils n’ont qu’un effet indirect sur la satisfaction du client mais sont essentiels au fonctionnement de l’entreprise. Les exemples classiques dans une entreprise sont l’embauche des salariés, la rémunération, le contentieux, etc…


3.  Désigner les propriétaires des processus.

Il convient de désigner un propriétaire pour chaque processus y compris les processus généraux, les sous-processus principaux et les processus de réalisation. Le propriétaire n’est pas nécessairement le responsable fonctionnel du service concerné (mais c’est parfois le cas). En général, ses principales compétences seront les suivantes :

  • il connaîtra suffisamment les sous-processus pour faire figure d’expert dans ce domaine
  • il possédera une aptitude au leadership, notamment un pouvoir de persuasion (car, à défaut de relation hiérarchique traditionnelle, il n’aura pas d’autre moyen d’action)
  • il saura ce qu’est la gestion de processus et s’intéressera à la question
  • il aura constaté les avantages et les inconvénients respectifs du bon et du mauvais   fonctionnement   d’un processus
  • il respectera les personnes qui participent aux processus précédant et suivant le sien.
  • Les processus de réalisation seront gérés tout comme les sous-processus principaux. Certaines entreprises ont du mal a se faire à l’idée qu’une série de sous-processus de réalisation peut valoir un processus général. Si l’on considère qu’une série d’importants processus de réalisation joue un rôle essentiel dans le fonctionnement de l’entreprise (ce qui est généralement le cas), il y a lieu d’envisager la création d’un processus général, qu’on pourra appeler processus de gestion des performances de l’entreprise. il n’en a pas été ainsi au départ chez westin hôtel, mais le développement du personnel y est aujourd’hui considéré comme un processus général.

4.   Créer et valider les “tableaux de bord” de chaque processus.

Quand on conduit une voiture, on doit faire attention à ce qu’on fait et regarder la route devant soi tout en surveillant ce qui se passe sur les côtés et dans le rétroviseur. De temps en temps, un bon conducteur jettera aussi un coup d’œil au tableau de bord. (…) Sans lui, le processus de conduite pourrait devenir beaucoup plus risqué. On imagine un trajet accompli sans disposer d’un compteur… Le propriétaire d’un processus doit donc de la même façon constituer un tableau de bord. Son contenu pourra provenir des clients grâce à des outils comme des groupes d’évaluation ou focus groups, des entretiens, des réclamations, ou des études de marche. (…) [Chez Westin Motels le mois consacré à la validation de ces indicateurs fit beaucoup pour améliorer l’adhésion des propriétaires de processus. Ils comprirent vite que, invariablement, ils s’échinaient pour améliorer ce tiers de leurs indicateurs qui, pour les clients, avait moins d’importance qu’une autre chose ignorée ou négligée. Bien des entreprises ont en fin de compte beaucoup de mal à mesurer leurs informations parce qu’elles tombent dans l’un ou ‘autre de deux pièges classiques. Le premier est de ne pas collecter les bonnes données. Le second est de collecter trop de données. Celles-ci devraient servir à établir des informations qui permettront de décider en connaissance de cause. En l’espèce, les indicateurs doivent aider le propriétaire d’un processus à, savoir à quel point ce dernier répond aux besoins et aux exigences des clients, ou les dépasse (efficacité).

Outre les indicateurs d’efficacité des processus, il est important de trouver des indicateurs d’efficience. Celle-ci se mesure habituellement par le temps de cycle, le coût ou la valeur. Les deux premiers indicateurs ne nécessitent pas d’explications ; la mesure de la valeur repose sur le respect des trois critères suivants par toute étape du processus :

  • le client est dispose a financer celte étape du processus :
  • le produit ou service est transféré ou modifié au cours de l’étape du processus
  • l’action est réussie du premier coup.

Pour tout processus, on devra s’efforcer de retenir de un à trois indicateurs

5. Recueillir les Données nécessaires

J’ai beau être un chaud partisan des indicateurs et de la collecte de données. considère aussi que celle-ci prend du temps et coûte de l’argent. Si l’on s’y prend bien, c’est un investissement avisé. Si l’on s’y prend mal, c’est non seulement un gaspillage mais autant de moins pour d’autres tâches qu’on aurait pu accomplir pour le client.
Il est important aussi que ce qui est mesuré soit comparé à autre chose. Dans le cas des mesures d’efficacité. la comparaison devrait se faire par rapport à que le client juge acceptable.

6. Définir des critères de sélection des projets.

(…) II incombe de hiérarchiser suffisamment tôt les efforts visant à introduite qualité dans l’entreprise. Le but à long terme d’une opération de qualité devrait être que tous les collaborateurs de l’entreprise pratiquent les concepts et les techniques de la qualité et considèrent l’entreprise sous l’angle de la gestion des processus. Cependant, on accroîtra beaucoup les chances de réussite en hiérarchisant les sous-processus à améliorer dès les premiers stades de la mise en œuvre. Ces premiers succès feront beaucoup pour neutraliser les oppositions internes.

La méthodologie de la hiérarchisation est relativement simple. L’équipe dirigeante devra choisir les critères de sélection du projet d’amélioration. Il est éminemment souhaité que la première série de critères coïncident avec les objectifs stratégiques de l’entreprise.

La direction générale s’entendra ensuite sur une liste de critères supplémentaires, dans laquelle devrait figurer les performances actuelles du processus à améliorer ;

Ainsi, en se concentrant sur les processus les moins performants, on augmentera la probabilité de voir les premiers projets porter leurs fruits, des fruits qu’il sera facile de cueillir.

L’équipe stratégique pourra décider de lancer autant de projets que les moyens disponibles le permettront, bien que cette méthode s’attache d’ordinaire à quelques-uns des principaux processus seulement. Les premiers projets devraient être consacrés aux sous-processus qui ont obtenus des notes plus élevées. Cela ne signifie pas qu’il faille ignorer les autres. Car leurs propriétaires vous diront tous qu’ils savent l’importance de la gestion d’un processus, que celui-ci figure ou non sur «l’écran radar ».

George Eckes est le président fondateur du cabinet qui porte son nom, Eckes & Associâtes Inc. (EAI), établi au Colorado (Etats-Unis). Titulaire d’un diplôme en psychologie du travail, il est devenu consultant dans les années 80 au sein d’un grand cabinet, travaillant notamment pour l’industrie automobile, puis a rejoint un important équipementier du secteur avant d’établir sa propre entreprise.

Ses ouvrages

George Eckes a appliqué la méthode Six Sigma avant d’en faire des livres. Il a jusqu’ici publié deux ouvrages en anglais : Thé Six Sigma Révolution (Wiley, John & Sons. Octobre 2000), dont des extraits sont! reproduits ici, et Making Six Sigma Last (même éditeur, mai 2001)

Gastos com logística no Brazil avançam 30%

Empresas com faturamento entre R$ 500 milhões e R$ I bilhão foram as que mais viram esse custo subir no ano passado


IMG_5325O cenário de recessão, com baixo investimento e queda no consumo, ajudou a potencializar os gastos do setor produtivo com logística. No ano passado, quase 12% da receita das empresas foi consumida com despesas de transportes e armazenagem, segundo levantamento feito pela Fundação Dom Cabral, com 142 empresas de 22 segmentos industriais.

Em 2012, esse por- centual estava na casa de 10,54% e em 2014, em 11,5%.  Na média, os cus- tos do ano passado tiveram um avanço real (descontada a inflação) de 1,896 comparado ao do ano anterior. Em alguns setores, no entanto, o aumento das despesas com logística foi mais perverso e corroeu de forma expressiva o ganho das companhias. No setor de metal mecânica, os gastos cresceram 60% (de 5%6 para 8,01%); mineração, 58%6 (de 8,5% para 13,43%); farmacêutico e cosméticos, 60% (de 5% para 7,799%); e papel e celulose, 48% (de 13% para 19,25%).

“Houve uma combinação muito desfavorável para as empresas em 2015: as receitas caíram e os custos logísticos continuaram a subir”, diz o professor da Fundação Dom Cabral, Paulo Resende, um dos coordenadores do levantamento. Segundo ele, os gastos com logística subiram mais entre as empresas com faturamento entre R$ 500 milhões e R$ 1 bilhão. Para esse grupo de companhias, os custos avançaram 30%.

Resende destaca que entre os fatores que mais influenciaram na evolução dos gastos com logística estão o aumento da burocracia, restrição para distribuição nas regiões metropoli- tanas, custo com mão de Obra especializada, aumento dos preços dos combustíveis e falta de infraestrutura de apoio nas estradas, que tem um peso forte nas despesas logísticas.

Entre as empresas pesquisadas pela Fundação Dom Cabral, 80% afirmaram que usavam, pre- dominantemente, o transporte rodoviário para movimentar suas cargas, sejam de produtos acabados ou de matéria-prima. O problema é que, com o ajuste fiscal do governo federal, os investimentos em infraestrutura rodoviária despencaram.

O orçamento caiu de R$ 22 bilhões para R$ 15 bilhões. E apenas 15% desse montante foi pago, segundo dados da Confederação Nacional do Transporte CNT). Resultado: 57% das estradas pavimentadas continuam em condições ruins e elevando os gastos das empresas.
“A cada ano nossa infraestrutura fica mais deficitária e nosso custo logístico piora”, diz o diretor do Departamento de Competitividade e Tecnologia da Federação das Indústrias do Estado de São Paulo (Fiesp), José Ricardo Roriz. Segundo ele, o Brasil precisaria investir, ao menos, duas vezes mais do que o volume atual só para manter a infraestrutura. “Isso sem contar o que seria necessário para melhorar a qualidade das estradas, portos e ferrovias.”
Segundo ele, até 2014, o Pais gastava US$ 2.224,40 por contêiner exportado enquanto o custo dos concorrentes foi de US$ 1.058,05 e dos países mais competitivos, como EUA, Cingapura, Japão e Coreia do Sul, de US$ 1.003,37. “A tendência é piorar, pois continuamos sem investir em infraestrutura.”

O professor da Dom Cabral concorda. Ele explica que o avanço de 1,8% do custo médio em 2015 s6 não foi maior porque alguns setores apresentaram recuo nos gastos. A queda, no entanto, não é uma boa notícia, diz Resende. Ele explica que muitas empresas, ao perceberem redução na receita, cortaram custos e desmobilizaram toda infraestrutura de transporte, fechando armazéns, vendendo frotas de veículos e terceirizando toda a parte de transportes. Com isso, o custo fixo da logística passa a ser uma despesa variável.

Adriano Thiele, diretor executivo de operações da JSL, uma das maiores empresas de logística do País, confirma essa tendência:      “Esse movimento tem Sido comum nos momentos de difi- culdade econômica, em que as empresas precisam aumentar a eficiência.” Segundo ele, o gru- po, que tem crescido 26% ao ano, vem conquistado novos contratos com empresas que já são clientes. “Sempre começamos com operações pequenas e, aos poucos, vamos assumindo ou- tros serviços. Assim, eu fico com o custo fixo dele.”

Para o professor Paulo Resende, num primeiro momento, essa migração pode representar vantagens. Mas, quando a economia reagir, as empresas terão dificuldade para retomar esses ativos, pois perderam capacidade logística. Além disso, com a atividade aquecida, a demanda por serviços de transporte aumenta e os custos tendem a subir.





Blog at

Up ↑